Australasian Journal of Philosophy

Legacy Journal Style Guide

Prior to mid-May 2022, the following instructions were given to authors of conditionally accepted manuscripts. Any submissions conditionally accepted after that date should look at the revised style guide.

For purposes of assessment, only the much less exacting Minimum Standard need be met. The requirements of Journal Style are not imposed on authors until a paper has been accepted for publication (conditionally or unconditionally). There are guidelines concerning the technical requirements for the final manuscript files, as well as requirements on content and style.

For those who need more advice than is given in the summary immediately below, there is a fuller AJP Style Guide contained in a table at the end of this page. This contains downloadable pdf versions of short documents which give more detailed information on AJP Journal Style requirements. All documents are provided in both A4 and US Letter formats for easy printing.

Technical Requirements

A final manuscript must be supplied in a format which the publisher's typesetters can handle. In almost all cases this will be the .docx format of recent versions of Word. The editorial office is also happy to receive plain text submissions written in Pandoc-flavoured Markdown. These are the only acceptable formats at this stage of the process. (Authors whose original submission was written in LaTeX are urged to use Pandoc to produce a suitable file; the conversion process works best with 'vanilla' LaTeX, so try not to rely on recherché packages in producing your manuscript.) The content must conform to the guidelines below.

Please ensure that your final manuscript is clean (i.e. with no 'comments' or 'changes tracked', and no field codes present). Your file should, so far as possible, forego use of document styles beyond the minimum needed, and should avoid any custom styles. 

For the convenience of authors, we provide a Word template file which contains the document styles and formatting elements used in the production of the Journal. Authors are encouraged to use only the included styles to format their manuscript. Please do not add any additional styles, or modify the existing styles. There is some dummy content in the template file to illustrate the uses of the various styles; please delete this content and replace it with your own. 

Submitted documents should be self-contained, with the exception of figures (see below for more information on figures). If you wisely make use of an external reference manager, the resulting formatted bibliography must be supplied to the editorial office without dependencies on external databases and without embedded field codes (the easiest way to remove these is to use Word's 'unlink fields' command: select the entire document using Ctrl+A [Mac: ⌘A] and then press Ctrl+Shift+F9 [⌘⇧F9] to replace the fields with their contents). Please do make use of equations/math mode for any mathematics. For purposes of comparison, please supply a .pdf version of your manuscript when you submit your Word or Pandoc Markdown file.


Please provide the highest quality figure format possible. To improve the print and online display, please ensure that all figures and graphics are supplied at the appropriate resolutions listed below:

Minimum 1200 dpi for line art; Minimum 600 dpi for greyscale; Minimum 300 dpi for colour. Note: use of colour in figures is discouraged as colour may not render effectively in print. 

Figures must be saved separate to text. Please do not embed figures in the manuscript file. You should however indicate roughly where the figure should occur in the manuscript by inserting the appropriate numbered figure caption.

Figures should be saved as TIFF, PostScript or EPS files, to guarantee compatibility with the publisher’s systems. The publisher provides more information on how to prepare artwork.

All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. Figure 1(a), Figure 1(b)).

The filename for a graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure1, Figure2a.

Style Requirements

Structure of your manuscript

Authors should take the elements of a recent article in the printed version of the Journal as a rough guide for the production and conventions of a finished manuscript. You need not try to emulate the exact appearance of the journal, but you should ensure that the logical structure of your manuscript resembles those appearing in the Journal.

The following general pattern must be followed in production of a final version:

Author's Name
Institutional Affiliation
(N.B. As space is at a premium, the abstract must not just repeat passages from the opening of the main text.)
[3 to 6 carefully chosen keywords will maximize the chance of your article's being found in electronic searching.]
Main Text*
Funding Information
Appendices (as appropriate)
Table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages)
Figure caption(s) (as a list)
[*The Main Text should be divided into convenient sections with arabic numerals for each section and decimalization for sub-sections. For example:
1. Introduction
Some text.
A footnote. {N.B. The AJP require footnotes, not endnotes.}
2. What Does a Logical Constant Mean? 
2.1 The Core Tenets of Inferential Role Semantics
Some more text.
2.2 Proof-Conditional Semantics and the Sequent Calculus
Yet more text.]
Text Style

Acronyms are deprecated. Unmemorable acronyms are prohibited.

The Oxford English Dictionary's version of UK usage is the Journal's normal standard for spelling; any spellchecker should be set to UK English. (But note that ‘Oxford spelling’ prescribes ‘-ize’ endings for many words that are commonly rendered with ‘-ise’ in standard usage in the UK: e.g., ‘characterize’, ‘systematize’, ‘actualize’. It is not clear that the Journal has always been perfectly consistent on this point.) Quotations, however, should follow the spelling of the quoted source.

Format with left justification only and disable any hyphenization programme.

Substantial quotations (40 words or more) should be shown as a block quotation: indented without quotation marks, and including any needed closing punctuation. Other (‘inline’) quotations should be enclosed by single quotation marks. Double quotation marks should be used only in the following ways: as inner quotation marks within single quotation marks, for example, for quotations within quotations; and to enable the exact reproduction of quoted material (that is, where the quoted author has used them). Closing punctuation should be outside quotation marks in almost all cases: it is your clause or sentence in which the quotation occurs, so the punctuation ought to be attributable to you, not the author you are quoting.

Citations and Bibliography

The AJP uses an author-date system of citations. The date used in the main text and footnotes should be that of the edition used. Anachronism and absurdity (such as 'Kant 1979') should be minimized, where possible, by using the original date of publication in citations (for example, 'Moore 1903' rather than the date of some later collection of essays) and indicating in the Bibliography the date of the edition actually cited (as, e.g., in the 'Edited Text' example shown below). References should be given in square brackets, in the text whenever possible. Footnotes should be substantive; those merely giving citations should be avoided.

Citations should appear in the text in the following forms: [author's surname(s) year: page number(s) or other locator if any], unless the author's name forms part of the sentence. Examples:

'As Lycan [2001: 25–9] notices …'
'Several authors have taken this view [Goldman 1994: 107; Velleman 1995; Anderson 2000: sec. 2; Black 2002: 159, 161–3].'
'A typical version of this argument can be found in Bloggs [2008: 257–64].'
Note that there is no comma between author and date, and page numbers (if any) are set off from the date by a colon and a space. Several works by an author in the same year should be distinguished by adding a lower case letter to the date, as [Jones 1999a: 23, 1999b]. Avoid the use of 'ibid.' and 'op. cit.', etc.

Page number ranges, in citations and bibliography, should follow Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed and later) rules:

First number Second number Examples
Less than 100 Use all digits 3–10; 71–72; 92–113;
100 or multiple of 100 Use all digits 100–104; 600–613; 1100–1123
101 through 109, 201 through 209, etc. (for each multiple of 100) Use changed part only, omitting unneeded zeros 107–8; 505–17; 1002–6
Everything else (110 through 199, 210 through 299, etc.; for each multiple of 100) Use two digits, unless more digits are needed to show the changed part 321–25; 415–532; 1087–89; 1496–500; 11564–68; 13792–803 12991–3001

The most common authorial error, even at the final stages of preparation, consists in failing to reconcile in-text citations with the final bibliography.

Bibliography. A final list, in alphabetical order by author (and listing all authors as part of an entry when the entry is multi-authored), and titled 'REFERENCES', must be included, and items must be formatted according to the following examples.

Note that titles of journal articles and chapters in books are not in quotes. Titles of books and journals are given in italics. Volume and issue numbers of journals are given in Arabic numerals. Both the city of publication and the publisher are given for books. Where more than one work by the same person is listed, the author's name must be repeated in the list rather than replaced by dashes (this is, again, to aid searching), and the items listed must be in chronological order, except that alphabetical order trumps chronological, so that co-authored items always follow single-authored items by the same person: e.g. 'Bloggs, J. and A.N. Other 1984' follows, rather than precedes, 'Bloggs, J. 1993' (but precedes, rather than follows, 'Bloggs, J. and M. Zitwell 1979). Note that when an author has two or more initials, these are not to be separated by spaces: hence 'A.N. Other' is correct, while 'A. N. Other' is not.


Black, Tim 2002. A Moorean Response to Brain-in-a-Vat Scepticism, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80/2: 148–63.

Stevens, G. 2004. From Russell's Paradox to the Theory of Judgement: Wittgenstein and Russell on the Unity of the Proposition, Theoria 70/1: 28–61.

Weinberg, J.M., S. Nichols, and S. Stich 2001. Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions, Philosophical Topics 29/1&2: 429–60.

Note that, to aid searching, both volume and issue numbers must be supplied for journal citations. Note also that an author's given name(s) may be listed either in full or just via initial letter(s). Do not use '&' for multi-author listings; use 'and' instead. When an author is listed more than once in a given bibliography, his/her name must be used each time; do not replace it with dashes, such as in the second or third listings of the name. And when an author appears both singly and as a lead co-author, the former should precede the latter in the list. When citing an article that has been published 'online first' but not yet assigned to an issue, please include the doi in place of the volume/issue and page numbers, in the form "doi:10.5840/jphil20161131035".


Devitt, Michael and Kim Sterelny 1987. Language and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Language, Oxford: Blackwell.

Foley, Richard 2012. When Is True Belief Knowledge?, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hetherington, S. 2011. How To Know: A Practicalist Conception of Knowledge, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 


Beall, J.C. 2007. Truth and Paradox: A Philosophical Sketch, in Philosophy of Logic, ed. Dale Jacquette, Amsterdam: North-Holland: 325–410.

Jones, Karen 2005. Moral Epistemology, in The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy, ed. Frank Jackson and Michael Smith, Oxford: Oxford University Press: 63–85.


Ludlow, P., Y. Nagasawa, and D. Stoljar, eds, 2004. There's Something About Mary: Essays on Phenomenal Consciousness and Frank Jackson's Knowledge Argument, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hume, D. 1747 (1974). A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Candlish, Stewart 2007. The Identity Theory of Truth, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2007 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta,

Common mistakes that occur in bibliographies include the following:

  • not giving the full title of a book;
  • not including the book's complete sub-title;
  • placing the year of publication in parentheses;
  • not presenting the names of co-authors in the correct order;
  • not listing the family names and given names of the authors, co-authors, editors, and/or co-editors in the specified Journal style;
  • not including the place of publication;
  • making a mistake as to that place of publication (e.g. note that not all OUP books are published in Oxford; and recent Wiley Blackwell books are published in Malden, MA);
  • rendering a publisher's name colloquially (e.g. 'OUP' for 'Oxford University Press' or 'MIT' for 'The MIT Press', etc.);
  • rendering a journal title colloquially (e.g., 'AJP' for 'Australasian Journal of Philosophy' – please note, the journal does not use ISO4 journal title abbreviations such as 'Australas J Philos');
  • omitting 'The' from a journal title (e.g. 'Monist' for 'The Monist');
  • omitting the issue number after a journal's volume number.

In-text citations. As to the form that should be taken by the citations within the body of an article or a book review, here are some (fictional) examples:

-- and that is that (see Jones [2006: 131]).

--and that is still that (see Jones [2006: 131] and Smith [2008]).

--and that is, yes, still that (see Jones [2006: 131], Smith [2008], and Gupta [2010: ch. 5])

--and that is that [Jones 2006: 131].

--and that is that [Jones 2006: 131, 2009: 45].

--and that is that [Jones 2006, 2009].

--and that is still that. For discussion, see Jones [2006: 131] and Smith [2008].

---and that is, yes, still that. For discussion, see Jones [2006: 131], Smith [2008], and Gupta [2010: ch. 5]

The curved parentheses are used when something is added to the pure citation, even if that 'something' is as little as an 'e.g.': thus, '(e.g. Jones [2006: 131])'. The square brackets are used for a pure citation: thus, 'See, for example, Jones [2006] and Smith [2008].'

Note that multiple-author citations within the article or review should be chronologically rather than alphabetically ordered:

--and that is still that [Jones 2006; Smith 2008; Gupta 2010].

Do not use '&' in multi-author citations.

For locators other than page numbers, an abbreviated form should be used. Correct: 'Murgatroyd [1951: ch. 4]', 'Lewis [1970, fig. 1]' and 'Wooster [1947: sec. 5]'. (Incorrect: 'Murgatroyd [1951: Ch. 4]' and 'Wooster [1947: Sec. 5]'.) For authors where there is a standardized system of reference, please use it: Aristotle [Physics: 198a22–5].

Internal cross references should be by section, rather than page, and follow the same abbreviations: 'As I will argue (sec. 5)'.

Random further details

Uses of 'e.g.':

Correct: 'see, e.g., Smith [1951]'; '(e.g. Smith [1951])'. At least, that is correct within a footnote. Within the main text, we do not use 'e.g.'; we use 'for example'

Incorrect: 'see e.g. Smith [1951]'; '(e.g., Smith [1951])' 

(The same points apply to uses of 'i.e.'.)

Use 'in so far', not 'insofar'.

Use the Oxford comma:

Correct: 'it was intriguing, provocative, and false'; ' see Smith, Lan, and Mehta [1995]'

Incorrect: 'it was intriguing, provocative and false'; 'see Smith, Lan and Mehta [1995]'.

Do not use 'though' when 'although' is correct.

Do not lightly discard 'that' immediately following 'believe', 'assume', 'suppose', 'know', and the like. For example, compare 'she believes she will do X' with 'she believes that she will do X'. The point extends further: compare 'The thing I discovered' with 'The thing that I discovered', or 'It is something he takes for granted' with 'It is something that he takes for granted', or 'the fact is we do so' with 'the fact is that we do so', and so on.

Similar advice pertains to a phrase such as 'in which': compare 'the way people think about the issue' with 'the way in which people think about the issue'.

Do not discard the 'of' from phrases of the form 'all the Xs', say.

Do not write 'will try and do', for example, when 'will try to do' is meant.

Do not write a phrase of the form 'will help A do X' when what is meant is 'will help A to do X'. In short, don't lightly discard 'to'.

Do not use 'could care less' when what is literally intended is 'could not care less'.

Do not begin a sentence with 'Whether or not' when what is intended is 'Regardless of whether or not'.

Do not use 'the question/issue is whether' when what is intended, more precisely, is 'the question/issue is that of whether' (or even 'the question/issue is one of whether').

Do not use 'That said,' when what is intended is 'With that said,'.

Do not use semi-colons and colons interchangeably. They have distinct functions. Semi-colons function either as a form of comma when there is, in effect, a list of ideas or clauses, or as a way of contrasting one idea with another. A colon lacks that contrastive function: a colon allows one to expand upon, or to illustrate, whatever idea precedes it. (Correct: 'It was a Gettiered belief: it was therefore true.' Correct: 'It was a Gettiered belief; it was not knowledge.' Incorrect: 'It was a Gettiered belief; it was therefore true.')

Do not use 'e.g.' or 'i.e.' in the body of the paper. Use them just in footnotes. (This is an AJP preference; the point is not intended as a comment on how to use these abbreviations in other journals, for example.)

Be aware of the difference between an apostrophe (’) and a prime (′); don't use the former as a substitute for the latter.

Be aware of the difference between angle brackets (⟨, ⟩) and less than/greater than symbols (<, >); don't use the former as a substitute for the latter.

When giving a mathematical definition, AJP prefers the use of the definition symbol ‘≝’.

AJP Style Guide

For those who need more advice than is given above, the following table displays links to downloadable pdf versions of brief documents (1–2 pp.) giving more detailed information, including examples, on AJP Journal Style requirements. All documents are provided in both A4 and US Letter formats for easy printing.

A4 Format US Letter Format
Abbreviations_Contractions_Acronyms Abbreviations_Contractions_Acronyms
Dates_and_Times Dates_and_Times

Table of Contents

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